Eczemas are excessive immunological reactions of the skin to common allergens. The most common eczema is the atopic dermatitis.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic eczema that comes with an intense itch, appearance of thickened rough skin prone to cracking hypopigmentation. The distribution of atopic dermatitis can be all over the body or localized to the curves and areas around the eyes and lips, manifested at the ages of newborns, children or adults. It most commonly comes with the extreme dryness of the skin, genetic predisposition, allergic rhinitis, bronchitis, asthma. Allergens in milk and eggs can often provoke poor state of skin. Substances available in therapy, like emollients and constant hydratation of the skin are corticosteroid creams, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, UV therapy, antihistamines, and sometimes antibiotics.
The disease must be treated in order for the skin barrier to remain intact, and the patient be allowed to sleep without painful itching. However, none of the treatment modalities is completely successful. The most important is to grease the skin with emollients. The time spent in warm baths must be as short as possible. Immediately after every shower body milk must be applied. Restrictive diets are often counterproductive and can lead to serious deficits in children. Depending on the shape of the atopic dermatitis, it can be treated by corticosteroid and immunomodulatory creams or UVA therapy, injections of corticosteroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine.
Generalized eczemas often appear as a consequence of organism sensibilization to bacteria or fungus somewhere on the body. The so called Id reaction is still an incompletely understood mechanism of the organism. By treating the basic disease, the eczema disappears too.
Also, the eczemas can be shaped like coins or followed by the appearance of bubbles on the feet and on the hands. In 70% of the diseased cases the place of origin is never found.
Through patch tests it can be determined whether a certain substance which we are in contact with every day, causes allergic reaction.
Spec. Dr. Svetlana Djurisic, dermatologist